Brainhack Glossary



The societal community of individuals and groups associated with education, research, scholarship, and learning, especially through university settings or research institutions.

Across Field


The extent to which communities with different backgrounds, experiences, training, perspectives, and locations can interact with a project and gain something from it.


Decided after the fact. Often used when something was not taken into consideration ahead of time.


The group that is addressed by intentional communication (e.g., those in attendance of an Open Science training). The target audience is a group of individuals that will be addressed or affected by the activity, training, communication, or action.


All active contributors, local or remote, who have contributed significantly to any part of the overall project at any stage, including participating in initial project planning & development, to creating written documentation of global efforts, and finally to finalizing and publishing the results.


Any individual who attends or is present at the event, training, seminar, workshop, or activity (e.g., participant at Brainhack event, individual present at Brainhack workshop, etc.)




The multitude of past experiences a person has, which can include characteristics about their upbringing, country of origin, socioeconomic status, education, scientific training, and more.


A hackathon that brings researchers together from a variety of neuroscience subfields and diverse research backgrounds to share open science practices and encourage the transfer of knowledge across the community in a collaborative way.

Brainhack Global (BHG)

An umbrella term that describes all hackathons and hacking events that fall under the international Brainhack initiative, allowing a central organizing committee to help coordinate, plan, and organize local Brainhack events all around the world. Brainhack Global is composed of a volunteer team of researchers from a variety of research institutions who lead global Brainhack efforts annually. This team is in charge of designing the proceedings of Brainhack Global, sharing information from Brainhack Global with individual local hackathon efforts, and maintaining the Brainhack Global materials, websites, and social accounts. Brainhack Global does not run a separate hacking event themselves at any specific location or time, but instead shares the information, materials, and broadcasts from all local event sites during the defined event period each year.

Brainhack Organization

Brainhack Organization Committee

Brainhack School

A bootcamp that helps individuals acquire and solidify the statistical and computational skills required to translate neuroimaging data into neuroscience knowledge. Generally, the Brainhack School consists of two weeks of active, open, and collaborative hands-on work on small-to-medium size projects.



Organizing and structure created through people working in the lower levels of an organization or community. Often compared to top-down, where structure is imposed from a few individuals at the top of a hierarchy.

Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS)

A standard for organizing, annotating, and describing neuroimaging and behavioral data based on an agreed-upon, formalized structure for folders and files.



A well-established measure of research impact; recognition or validation of research by others (Hersh and Plume, 2016).


A group of people who share a common characteristic, goal, interest, ideal, or any group of individuals who occupy similar physical spaces.

Community Building

Code of Conduct

Guidelines that establish the expected behavior of those in the community, outlining what is considered a violation of proper behavior, describing the process by which violations of the guidelines will be addressed, and stating who will be in charge of enforcing them.

Creative Commons (CC)

A suite of standardized licences that allow copyright holders to grant some rights to users by default. CC licences are widely used, simple to use, machine readable, and have been created by legal experts. There are a variety of CC licences, each of which use one or more clauses. Some licences are compatible with Open Access in the Budapest sense (CC0 or those carrying the BY, SA, and ND clauses), and some are not (carrying the NC clause).




A way of describing how change can be envisioned, created, and implemented by an interconnected group of individuals. See Bottom-Up.




Code Readability


An OHBM committee created in June 2014 to represent the “Committee on Best Practice in Data Analysis & Sharing” (COBIDAS).



Any individual who has contributed something back to the overall project. This is defined as any planning, organizing, writing, editing, brainstorming, suggesting, or contributing time to the project in any form.


A collection of educational materials, lesson plans, or any other academic or training content taught as part of an educational course or program with a defined structure.



All digitally available objects (simple or complex) that emerge or are the result of the research process.



Data Mining

An analytic process designed to explore data in search of consistent patterns or systematic relationships between variables, transforming data into information for future use.

Data Science

An interdisciplinary field focused on understanding how to glean insight from structured and unstructured data. Sits at the intersection of computer science, statistics, and domain specific fields.

Data Structuring Standards


Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content such as journal articles, data sets or open source software releases and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet (American Psychological Association, 2018).



Detailed information about the background and methodological approaches about data or code (e.g., description of the project, variables, and measuring instruments).


Early Career Researcher (ECR)

Non-tenuered researchers including undergraduates, research assistants, graduate students, postdocs, and junior faculty.

Educational Materials

Electroencephalography (EEG)


Ethics / Research ethics

The moral principles that govern how researchers should carry out their work. These principles are used to shape research regulations agreed by groups such as university governing bodies, communities or governments. All researchers should follow these regulations that apply to their work.



Findable, accessible, interoperable, and re-usable (FAIR) data, which facilitates knowledge discovery by assisting humans and machines in their discovery of, access to, integration and analysis of, task-appropriate scientific data and their associated algorithms and workflows. This definition is according with FORCE11 principles published in Nature Scientific Data.


Fully Open

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

A neuroscience method that indirectly measures brain activity by detecting changes in blood flow associated with brain activity through the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal.




General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) seeks to create a harmonised data protection law framework across the EU. It aims to restitute the control of personal data to citizens, whilst imposing strict rules on those hosting and ‘processing’ these data, anywhere in the world. The Regulation also introduces rules relating to the free movement of personal data within and outside the EU.

Geographically Unbounded


An online code hosting and version control service. It has a great many features to aid collaboration between users, and hosts a large number of open source projects.


A web-based DevOps lifecycle tool that provides a Git-repository manager providing wiki, issue-tracking and continuous integration and deployment pipeline features, using an open-source license, developed by GitLab Inc.



In this context, hacking does not refer to trying to break through the security of a computer system. Instead, it is understood as tinkering with a system to understand how it works, selecting a problem to learn how to solve it, or working with a process to gain knowledge on how to improve it.


The term hackathon is a portmanteau of “hacking” and “marathon”. Traditionally, it is an event where both individuals people and teams gather to collaboratively work on projects over the course of multiple days. These events often feature competitions between teams; however, Brainhacks do not have this feature and instead emphasize collaboration.



A proposed explanation for observed phenomenon that can be tested through various forms of investigation.



The practice of providing equal access to all regardless of minority group status and actively seeking the engagement and contribution from these groups.




New ways of thinking or doing that are a departure in some way from how they were done previously.


Intellectual Property

A legal term that refers to creations of the mind. Examples of intellectual property include music, literature, paintings, sculpturing, video and other artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and phrases, symbols, and designs.



A series of published research articles. Historically divided into volumes and issues.






This is a legal document that sets out the permissions for creative and academic work. It explains copyright, ensures proper attribution and sets out how others can copy, distribute and make use of the works.

Local Event




Contributors who are responsible for driving the vision and managing the organizational aspects of the project. They may also be authors and/or owners of the project.

Mattermost Community Forum


Metadata provides a basic description of the data, often including authorship, dates, title, abstract, keywords, and license information. They serve first and foremost the findability of data (e.g. creator, time period, geographic location).





Neuroimaging Pipeline Framework


A person who studies the function of the nervous system.


Neurohackademy is a summer school in neuroimaging and data science, held at the University of Washington eScience Institute (




The Organization for Human Brain Mapping (OHBM) is an international society dedicated to using neuroimaging to discover the organization of the human brain. The Society’s main purpose is that of advancing the understanding of the anatomical and functional organization of the human brain, and promoting its medical and societal applications (

OHBM Aperture

An open-access publishing platform publishing a broad range of research objects, such as research reports, reviews, tutorials, educational materials, computational notebooks, software, and data papers.

Open Access

Open Access refers to online, free of cost access to peer-reviewed scientific content with free reusability regarding copyright restrictions.

Open Access Publishing (gratis)

The practice of making research publications available to anyone to read without charge.

Open Access Publishing (libre)

Libre open access is gratis, meaning the research is available free of charge, but it goes further by granting users the right to copy, reuse, and remix the publication

Open Data

Open Data is online, free of cost, accessible data that can be used, reused and distributed provided that the data source is attributed.

Open Evaluation

The development of a fair evaluation system or protocol for research proposals, based on transparency of the process and those involved.

Open Lab Notebooks

A concept of writing about research on a regular basis, such that research notes and data are accumulated and published online as soon as they are obtained.

Open License

A license is a document that specifies what can and cannot be done with a work. It grants permissions and states restrictions. Broadly speaking, an open license is one that grants permission to access, re-use and redistribute a work with few or no restrictions.

Open Materials

Sharing of research materials, for example, biological and geological samples, is another Open Science practice.

Open Neuro

A free neuroinformatics platform for sharing neuroimaging data.

Open Peer Review

An umbrella term for a number of overlapping ways that peer review models can be adapted in line with the aims of Open Science, including making reviewer and author identities open, publishing review reports and enabling greater participation in the peer review process.

Open Source Project

A project in which a significant amount of collaboration between the core or leadership team and the wider community takes place in the form of online interactions. Community interactions should maintain transparency and openness of the project to facilitate the growth of your community.

Open Science

Movement which aims to improve the strength of scientific inferences and the effectiveness of scientific communication, by reducing questionable research practices, and making greater use of practices such as replication and pre-prints

Open Science Framework

Open Source

Availability of source code for a piece of software, along with an open source license permitting reuse, adaptation, and further distribution.





Collecting or selecting data or statistical analyses until non-significant results become significant (a questionable research practice).


Peer Review

A process by which a research article is vetted by experts from the community before publication.

Peer Working


A manuscript draft that has not yet been subject to formal peer review, distributed to receive early feedback on research from peers. a complete study report shared with a public audience without peer review. Often, preprints are also submitted for peer review and publication in a traditional scholarly journal.


Researchers have the option or are required to submit important information about their study (for example: research rationale, hypotheses, design and analytic strategy) to a public registry before beginning the study. Preregistration can help counter reporting bias. Project

Project Leader

Project Pitching


Publishing Venue



Typically defined as the ratio of within-subject variability to between-subject variability (ie. Intraclass correlation coefficient).


Registered Report

A published report describing the hypotheses and planned method of a study, before the data is collected. Also known as a ‘pre-registration’ or ‘pre-reg’.


A long-lived place on the internet where resources (be they data, software, publications or anything else) can be stored and accessed. This keyword is often shortened to ‘repo’.


The degree to which the same methods, results, and inferences of a study can be produced again. Methods reproducibility is the degree to which the methods described in a study report can be performed again. This may be limited by a vague description in the study report or lack of openness in the data. Results reproducibility is the degree to which the same results are produced, in a new study with the same method Inferential reproducibility is the degree to which the same inferences are drawn, either in a new study with the same method and results or in a re-analysis of the original study. Generally speaking, when discussing reproducibility it is important to specify the changing conditions across which measurement/findings are being reproduced. Computational reproducibility, cross-sample reproducibility, and cross-site reproducibility and other forms all specify the changing conditions under which reproducibility is being measured.


File where you document your research data. The documentation should be sufficient to enable other researchers to understand, replicate or reproduce the data or reuse them in any other way.

Reporting Bias

Reporting bias occurs when certain aspects of a study are systematically not reported transparently, creating wastage and redundancy through selective reporting or non-publishing.


The infrastructure and corresponding service that allows for the persistent, efficient and sustainable storage of digital objects (such as documents, data and code).

Reproducible Research

Reproducibility is a spectrum and instructors should choose the definition most used by their audience. Generally speaking, reproducible research makes it possible to obtain similar results of a study or experiment and independent results obtained with the same methods but under different conditions (i.e., pertains to results). Some break the definition into levels of reproducibility, including computationally reproducible (also called “reproducible”): where code and data can be analyzed in a similar manner as in the original research to achieve the same results, and empirically reproducible (also called “replicable”): where an independent researcher can repeat a study using the same methods but creating new data.

Research Impact

Involve academic, economic and societal aspects, or some combination of all three. Impact is the demonstrable contribution that research makes in shifting understanding and advancing scientific, method, theory and application across and within disciplines, and the broader role that this plays outside of the research system.

Research Funder

An institute, corporation or government body that provides financial assistance for research.



Sample Size

The number of individuals observed in a given analysis.

Satellite Events

Scholarly Communication

The creation, transformation, dissemination, and preservation of knowledge related to teaching, research, and scholarly endeavors; the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community. The creation, transformation, dissemination, and preservation of knowledge related to teaching, research, and scholarly endeavors; the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community.

Scientific Validation

Senior Researcher


Scientific Approach

Scientific Practice


The joint use of a resource or space. A fundamental aspect of collaborative research. As most research is digitally-authored & digitally-published, the resulting digital content is non-rivalrous and can be shared without any loss to the original creator.


A form of business model whereby a fee is paid in order to gain access to a product or service—in this case, the outputs of scholarly research.

Study Protocol





The moderator and instructor of a training, whose role is to ensure the training objectives are met, run the practice, and ensure no one is left out.


Training is any organised activity that teaches, informs, or transfers skills or knowledge on specific useful competencies through active, engaged learning.

Training Format

A conventionally named, standardised delivery method that is applied by a trainer and includes any number of the pedagogical tools necessary (i.e. motivation/demotivation, hands-on approaches, etc).


A series of educational talks or workshops that runs in parallel to the project tracks through which attendees collaboratively work on projects. The content of the TrainTrack can range from tutorials that teach hands-on skills needed for the projects in a Brainhack (e.g., like code version-control using Git) to software demos with much narrower applications.






An unconference is a participant-driven meeting. The term “unconference” has been applied, or self-applied, to a wide range of gatherings that try to avoid hierarchical aspects of a conventional conference, such as sponsored presentations and top-down organization [1]. Commonly, participants present their research, project work, or any other topics of current interest in an informal setting to other participants. The content of an unconference is usually decided very shortly before or during the Brainhack event itself, often inspired by ongoing within-team discussions that could be of interest to the larger group.



Version Control

Version control is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information in a logical and persistent manner, allowing for both track changes and the ability to revert a piece of information to a previous revision.

Version Control System





The labor pool of a given institution, company, state, or group. It can be formal or informal, but either way, its main function is to unite.





Wikipedia contributors. Unconference — Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2021. [Online; accessed 22-Feb-2021]. URL: